A Topology for Figural Ambiguity

Thaddeus M. Cowan
Bridges: Mathematical Connections in Art, Music, and Science (2000)
Pages 217–224


A topology for figural ambiguity (braid theory) is proposed which describes figure-figure, figure-ground, and figure-ground-figure ambiguities with the defining relations of the topology. The power of the topology is demonstrated by the classification of ambiguities and the revelation of new ambiguous forms.